Boltzmann Machines 2

#The Hopfield net as a distribution

#The Helmholtz Free Energy of a System

  • At any time, the probability of finding the system in state $s$ at temperature $T$ is $P_T(s)$

  • At each state it has a potential energy $E_s$

  • The internal energy of the system, representing its capacity to do work, is the average

    • $$ U_{T}=\sum_{S} P_{T}(s) E_{S} $$
  • The capacity to do work is counteracted by the internal disorder of the system, i.e. its entropy

    • $$ H_{T}=-\sum_{S} P_{T}(s) \log P_{T}(s) $$
  • The Helmholtz free energy of the system measures the useful work derivable from it and combines the two terms

    • $$ F_{T}=U_{T}+k T H_{T} $$
    • $$ =\sum_{S} P_{T}(s) E_{S}-k T \sum_{S} P_{T}(s) \log P_{T}(s) $$
  • The probability distribution of the states at steady state is known as the Boltzmann distribution

    • Minimizing this w.r.t $P_T(s)$, we get

    • $$ P_{T}(s)=\frac{1}{Z} \exp \left(\frac{-E_{S}}{k T}\right) $$

    • $Z$ is a normalizing constant

#Hopfield net as a distribution

  • $E(S)=-\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i} s_{j}-b_{i} s_{i}$
  • $P(S)=\frac{\exp (-E(S))}{\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(-E\left(S^{\prime}\right)\right)}$
  • The stochastic Hopfield network models a probability distribution over states
  • It is a generative model: generates states according to $P(S)$

#The field at a single node

  • Let's take one node as example

  • Let $S$ and $S^\prime$ be the states with the +1 and -1 states

    • $P(S)=P\left(s_{i}=1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right) P\left(s_{j \neq i}\right)$
    • $P\left(S^{\prime}\right)=P\left(s_{i}=-1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right) P\left(s_{j \neq i}\right)$
    • $\log P(S)-\log P\left(S^{\prime}\right)=\log P\left(s_{i}=1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right)-\log P\left(s_{i}=-1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right)$
    • $\log P(S)-\log P\left(S^{\prime}\right)=\log \frac{P\left(s_{i}=1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right)}{1-P\left(s_{i}=1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right)}$
  • $\log P(S)=-E(S)+C$

    • $E(S)=-\frac{1}{2}\left(E_{\text {not } i}+\sum_{j \neq i} w_{i j} s_{j}+b_{i}\right)$
    • $E\left(S^{\prime}\right)=-\frac{1}{2}\left(E_{\text {not } i}-\sum_{j \neq i} w_{i j} s_{j}-b_{i}\right)$
  • $\log P(S)-\log P\left(S^{\prime}\right)=E\left(S^{\prime}\right)-E(S)=\sum_{j \neq i} w_{i j} S_{j}+b_{i}$

    • $\log \left(\frac{P\left(s_{i}=1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right)}{1-P\left(s_{i}=1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right)}\right)=\sum_{j \neq i} w_{i j} s_{j}+b_{i}$

    • $P\left(s_{i}=1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right)=\frac{1}{1+e^{-\left(\sum_{j \neq i} w_{i j} s_{j}+b_{i}\right)}}$

  • The probability of any node taking value 1 given other node values is a logistic

#Redefining the network

  • Redefine a regular Hopfield net as a stochastic system
  • Each neuron is now a stochastic unit with a binary state $s_i$, which can take value 0 or 1 with a probability that depends on the local field
    • $z_{i}=\sum_{j} w_{i j} s_{j}+b_{i}$
    • $P\left(s_{i}=1 \mid s_{j \neq i}\right)=\frac{1}{1+e^{-z_{i}}}$
  • Note
    • The Hopfield net is a probability distribution over binary sequences (Boltzmann distribution)
    • The conditional distribution of individual bits in the sequence is a logistic
  • The evolution of the Hopfield net can be made stochastic
    • Instead of deterministically responding to the sign of the local field, each neuron responds probabilistically
  • Recall patterns
β—Ž Annealing

#The Boltzmann Machine

  • The entire model can be viewed as a generative model
  • Has a probability of producing any binary vector $y$
    • $E(\mathbf{y})=-\frac{1}{2} \mathbf{y}^{T} \mathbf{W} \mathbf{y}$
    • $P(\mathbf{y})=\operatorname{Cexp}\left(-\frac{E(\mathbf{y})}{T}\right)$
  • Training a Hopfield net: Must learn weights to β€œremember” target states and β€œdislike” other states
    • Must learn weights to assign a desired probability distribution to states
    • Just maximize likelihood

#Maximum Likelihood Training

  • $\log (P(S))=\left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i} s_{j}\right)-\log \left(\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)\right)$

  • $\mathcal{L}=\frac{1}{N} \sum_{S \in \mathbf{S}} \log (P(S)) =\frac{1}{N} \sum_{S}\left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i} s_{j}\right)-\log \left(\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)\right)$

  • Second term derivation

    • $\frac{d \log \left(\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)\right)}{d w_{i j}}=\sum_{S^{\prime}} \frac{\exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)}{\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime \prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}$
    • $\frac{d \log \left(\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)\right)}{d w_{i j}}=\sum_{S_{\prime}} P\left(S^{\prime}\right) s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}$
    • The second term is simply the expected value of $s_iS_j$, over all possible values of the state
    • We cannot compute it exhaustively, but we can compute it by sampling!
  • Overall gradient ascent rule

    • $w_{i j}=w_{i j}+\eta \frac{d\langle\log (P(\mathbf{S}))\rangle}{d w_{i j}}$
  • Overall Training

    • Initialize weights
    • Let the network run to obtain simulated state samples
    • Compute gradient and update weights
    • Iterate
  • Note the similarity to the update rule for the Hopfield network

    • The only difference is how we got the samples

#Adding Capacity

β—Ž Expanding the network
  • Visible neurons

    • The neurons that store the actual patterns of interest
  • Hidden neurons

    • The neurons that only serve to increase the capacity but whose actual values are not important
  • We could have multiple hidden patterns coupled with any visible pattern

    • These would be multiple stored patterns that all give the same visible output
  • We are interested in the marginal probabilities over visible bits

    • $S=(V,H)$
    • $P(S)=\frac{\exp (-E(S))}{\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(-E\left(S^{\prime}\right)\right)}$
    • $P(S) = P(V,H)$
    • $P(V)=\sum_{H} P(S)$
  • Train to maximize probability of desired patterns of visible bits

    • $E(S)=-\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i} s_{j}$
    • $P(S)=\frac{\exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i} s_{j}\right)}{\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)}$
    • $P(V)=\sum_{H} \frac{\exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i} s_{j}\right)}{\sum_{S^{\prime}} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)}$
  • Maximum Likelihood Training

    $$\log (P(V))=\log \left(\sum_{H} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i} s_{j}\right)\right)-\log \left(\sum_{S_{\prime}} \exp \left(\sum_{i<j} w_{i j} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime}\right)\right)$$

    $$\mathcal{L}=\frac{1}{N} \sum_{V \in \mathbf{V}} \log (P(V))$$ $$ \frac{d \mathcal{L}}{d w_{i j}}=\frac{1}{N} \sum_{V \in \mathbf{V}} \sum_{H} P(S \mid V) s_{i} s_{j}-\sum_{S !} P\left(S^{\prime}\right) s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime} $$

  • $\sum_{H} P(S \mid V) s_{i} s_{j} \approx \frac{1}{K} \sum_{H \in \mathbf{H}_{s i m u l}} s_{i} S_{j}$

  • Computed as the average sampled hidden state with the visible bits fixed

  • $\sum_{S^{\prime}} P\left(S^{\prime}\right) s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime} \approx \frac{1}{M} \sum_{S_{i} \in \mathbf{S}_{s i m u l}} s_{i}^{\prime} S_{j}^{\prime}$

    • Computed as the average of sampled states when the network is running β€œfreely”



  • For each training pattern $V_i$
    • Fix the visible units to $V_i$
    • Let the hidden neurons evolve from a random initial point to generate $H_i$
    • Generate $S_i = [V_i,H_i]$
  • Repeat K times to generate synthetic training

$$ \mathbf{S}={S_{1,1}, S_{1,2}, \ldots, S_{1 K}, S_{2,1}, \ldots, S_{N, K}} $$


  • Now unclamp the visible units and let the entire network evolve several times to generate

$$ \mathbf{S}_{simul}=S_{simul, 1}, S_{simul, 2}, \ldots, S_{simul, M} $$

Gradients $$ \frac{d\langle\log (P(\mathbf{S}))\rangle}{d w_{i j}}=\frac{1}{N K} \sum_{\boldsymbol{S}} s_{i} s_{j}-\frac{1}{M} \sum_{S_{i} \in \mathbf{S}_{\text {simul }}} s_{i}^{\prime} s_{j}^{\prime} $$

$$ w_{i j}=w_{i j}-\eta \frac{d\langle\log (P(\mathbf{S}))\rangle}{d w_{i j}} $$

  • Gradients are computed as before, except that the first term is now computed over the expanded training data


  • Training takes for ever
  • Doesn’t really work for large problems
    • A small number of training instances over a small number of bits

#Restricted Boltzmann Machines

β—Ž Restricted Boltzmann Machines
  • Partition visible and hidden units
    • Visible units ONLY talk to hidden units
    • Hidden units ONLY talk to visible units



  • For each sample
    • Anchor visible units
    • Sample from hidden units
    • No looping!!


  • Now unclamp the visible units and let the entire network evolve several times to generate

$$ \mathbf{S}_{simul}=S_{simul, 1}, S_{simul, 2}, \ldots, S_{simul, M} $$

β—Ž Sampling
  • For each sample
    • Initialize $V_0$ (visible) to training instance value
    • Iteratively generate hidden and visible units
  • Gradient
β—Ž Training

$$ \frac{\partial \log p(v)}{\partial w_{i j}}=<v_{i} h_{j}>^{0}-<v_{i} h_{j}>^{\infty} $$

#A Shortcut: Contrastive Divergence

  • Recall: Raise the neighborhood of each target memory
  • Sufficient to run one iteration to give a good estimate of the gradient

$$ \frac{\partial \log p(v)}{\partial w_{i j}}=< v_{i} h_{j}>^{0}-<v_{i} h_{j}>^{1} $$

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