# Back propagation through a CNN

## #Convolution • Each position in $z$ consists of convolution result in previous map • Way for shrinking the maps
• Stride greater than 1
• Downsampling (not necessary)
• Typically performed with strides > 1
• Pooling
• Maxpooling
• Note: keep tracking of location of max (needed while back prop)
• Mean pooling

## #Learning the CNN

• Training is as in the case of the regular MLP
• The only difference is in the structure of the network
• Define a divergence between the desired output and true output of the network in response to any input
• Network parameters are trained through variants of gradient descent
• Gradients are computed through backpropagation ### #Final flat layers

• Backpropagation continues in the usual manner until the computation of the derivative of the divergence
• Recall in Backpropagation
• Step 1: compute $\frac{\partial Div}{\partial z^{n}}$、$\frac{\partial Div}{\partial y^{n}}$
• Step 2: compute $\frac{\partial Div}{\partial w^{n}}$ according to step 1

### #Convolutional layer #### #Computing $\nabla_{Z(l)} D i v$

• $$\frac{d D i v}{d z(l, m, x, y)}=\frac{d D i v}{d Y(l, m, x, y)} f^{\prime}(z(l, m, x, y))$$

• Simple compont-wise computation

#### #Computing $\nabla_{Y(l-1)} D i v$ • Each $Y(l-1,m,x,y)$ affects several $z(l,n,x\prime,y\prime)$ terms for every $n$ (map)

• Through $w_l(m,n,x-x\prime,y-y\prime)$
• Affects terms in all $l^{th}$ layer maps
• All of them contribute to the derivative of the divergence $Y(l-1,m,x,y)$
• Derivative w.r.t a specific $y$ term

$$\frac{d D i v}{d Y(l-1, m, x, y)}=\sum_{n} \sum_{x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}} \frac{d D i v}{d z\left(l, n, x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}\right)} \frac{d z\left(l, n, x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}\right)}{d Y(l-1, m, x, y)}$$

$$\frac{d D i v}{d Y(l-1, m, x, y)}=\sum_{n} \sum_{x \prime, y^{\prime}} \frac{d D i v}{d z\left(l, n, x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}\right)} w_{l}\left(m, n, x-x^{\prime}, y-y^{\prime}\right)$$

#### #Computing $\nabla_{w(l)} D i v$

• Each weight $w_l(m,n,x\prime,y\prime)$ also affects several $z(l,n,x,y)$ term for every $n$
• Affects terms in only one $Z$ map (the nth map)
• All entries in the map contribute to the derivative of the divergence w.r.t. $w_l(m,n,x\prime,y\prime)$
• Derivative w.r.t a specific $w$ term

$$\frac{d D i v}{d w_{l}(m, n, x, y)}=\sum_{x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}} \frac{d D i v}{d z\left(l, n, x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}\right)} \frac{d z\left(l, n, x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}\right)}{d w_{l}(m, n, x, y)}$$

$$\frac{d D i v}{d w_{l}(m, n, x, y)}=\sum_{x \prime, y^{\prime}} \frac{d D i v}{d z\left(l, n, x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}\right)} Y\left(l-1, m, x^{\prime}+x, y^{\prime}+y\right)$$

### #Summary ### #In practice

$$\frac{d D i v}{d Y(l-1, m, x, y)}=\sum_{n} \sum_{x \prime, y^{\prime}} \frac{d D i v}{d z\left(l, n, x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}\right)} w_{l}\left(m, n, x-x^{\prime}, y-y^{\prime}\right)$$ • This is a convolution, with defferent order
• Use mirror image to do normal convolution (flip up down / flip left right) • In practice, the derivative at each (x,y) location is obtained from all $Z$ maps • This is just a convolution of $\frac{\partial Div}{\partial z(l,n,x,y)}$ by the inverted filter
• After zero padding it first with $L-1$ zeros on every side • Note: the $x\prime, y\prime$ refer to the location in filter
• Shifting down and right by $K-1$, such that $0,0$ becomes $K-1,K-1$

$$z_{\text {shift}}(l, n, m, x, y)=z(l, n, x-K+1, y-K+1)$$

$$\frac{\partial D i v}{\partial y(l-1, m, x, y)}=\sum_{n} \sum_{x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}} \widehat{w}\left(l, n, m, x^{\prime}, y^{\prime}\right) \frac{\partial D i v}{\partial z_{s h i f t}\left(l, n, x+x^{\prime}, y+y^{\prime}\right)}$$

• Regular convolution running on shifted derivative maps using flipped filter

### #Pooling

• Pooling is typically performed with strides > 1
• Results in shrinking of the map
• Downsampling

#### #Derivative of Max pooling

$$\frac{d D i v}{d Y(l, m, k, l)}=\left\{\begin{array}{c} \frac{d D i v}{d U(l, m, i, j)} \text { if }(k, l)=P(l, m, i, j) \\ 0 \text { otherwise } \end{array}\right.$$

• Max pooling selects the largest from a pool of elements #### #Derivative of Mean pooling

• The derivative of mean pooling is distributed over the pool

$$d y(l, m, k, n)=\frac{1}{K_{l p o o l}^{2}} d u(l, m, k, n)$$ ### #Transposed Convolution

• We’ve always assumed that subsequent steps shrink the size of the maps
• Can subsequent maps increase in size • Output size is typically an integer multiple of input
• +1 if filter width is odd

## #Model variations

• Very deep networks
• 100 or more layers in MLP
• Formalism called “Resnet”
• Depth-wise convolutions
• Instead of multiple independent filters with independent parameters, use common layer-wise weights and combine the layers differently for each filter

### #Depth-wise convolutions

• In depth-wise convolution the convolution step is performed only once
• The simple summation is replaced by a weighted sum across channels
• Different weights (for summation) produce different output channels ### #Models

• For CIFAR 10

• For ILSVRC(Imagenet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge)

• AlexNet
• NN contains 60 million parameters and 650,000 neurons
• 5 convolutional layers, some of which are followed by max-pooling layers
• 3 fully-connected layers
• VGGNet
• Only used 3x3 filters, stride 1, pad 1
• Only used 2x2 pooling filters, stride 2
• ~140 million parameters in all
• Googlenet
• Multiple filter sizes simultaneously
• For ImageNet

• Resnet
• Last layer before addition must have the same number of filters as the input to the module
• Batch normalization after each convolution • Densenet
• All convolutional
• Each layer looks at the union of maps from all previous layers
• Instead of just the set of maps from the immediately previous layer

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